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What is an Optical Fibre System?

technical information

Fibre optic cable and equipment is now replacing copper cable and equipment as a means of communication and signal transmission, spanning long distances between local telephone exchanges and providing a backbone for many network systems. In its simplest form a fibre optic system will consist of a transmitter (produces and encodes the light signals), optical fibre (conducts the light signals over a distance), optical repeater (may be required to re boost the signal over longer distances), and a receiver (receives and decodes the light signals).

MSS Fibre Systems is a leading supplier of quality optical fibre products can provide all your equipment and cabling requirements including:

Fibre Optic Cable (FOC)
This cable is made from extruded glass and can transmit a vast amount of information along its glass core offering far greater speed and information carrying capacity (bandwidth) over traditional copper systems.

Fibre Optic Pre-Terminated Cable
This is a length of cable that is terminated in our factory with optic connectors and fully tested prior to being installed. This is a very cost effective alternative to running a cable and then installing optic connectors onto the cable on site.

Fibre Optic Connectors
These connectors terminate the end of a FOC and allows for a fast and reliable connection and disconnection between cable and equipment. A connector also aligns the cores so light can pass without major optical loss.

Fibre Optic Test Equipment
This equipment is used by installers for testing and commissioning networks. Test equipment will include the OTDR (optical time domain reflectometer) to test network integrity, Light source and Power meters for loss budget calculations, microscopes to inspect the cleanliness of connector ends, Identifiers for checking traffic on live networks and Visible fault locators to identify breaks in the line.

Fusion Splicer
These high precision units will perform a very low loss join of two cores using a technology where the glass is fused or 'melted' together. Unlike connectors a fusion splice is a permanent join of two cables and cannot be unmated but it does offer a lower loss connection.

Fibre Enclosure
This component is used to house, route and terminate FOC either by fusion splice or using connectors. An enclosure will normally be a box, tray or dome that can be mounted into an equipment rack or on a wall or installed into underground pits.

Fibre Attenuators
This component is a passive device installed into an optical system and helps to reduce the signal if needed. Attenuators can either have set attenuation values (5dB, 10dB, etc) or allow for variable attenuation.

FTTH Products
This is generic term for products used to build a broadband network that uses cable and technology to connect individual dwellings into a central location.

FOBOT
Abbreviation for fibre optic breakout tray and is used to house, route and terminate optical fibre cable.

How Does it Work?
Fibre-optics use light pulses to transmit information down fibre cable cores instead of using electronic pulses to transmit information down copper wires.

At one end of the optical system is a transmitter. This is the place of origin for information coming into the optical fibre network. The transmitter accepts coded electronic pulse information as signals and then processes and translates that information into equivalently coded light pulses. A light-emitting diode (LED) or an injection-laser diode (ILD) can be used for generating the light pulses. Using a lens, the light pulses are funnelled into the fibre-optic cable where they transmit themselves down the line.

Light pulses move easily down the optical fibre core due to a principle known as total internal reflection. This principle of total internal reflection states that when the angle of incidence exceeds a critical value, light cannot get out of the glass; instead, the light bounces back in. When this principle is applied to the construction of the fibre-optic strand, it is possible to transmit information down fibre cores in the form of light pulses.

At the other end of the optical system the signal that has been transmitted the length of the fibre optic cable run reaches the receiver which then translates the information back to electronic pulses. At the other end of the optical system the signal that has been transmitted the length of the fibre optic cable run reaches the receiver which then translates the information back to electronic pulses.

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